Torrent Seeding Explained


Torrent file sharing is one of the best thing ever to be made, it made sharing files of that are in the Gigabytes range effortless. One of the best features it has is its resume capabilities, this means should you lose internet connection for a moment or day (God forbid) it will resume on the progress it already made. I know you have the same questions that I have, if gravity stops things from falling into space but what’s stopping earth to float away, just kidding, I know the answer but how does torrent do this, traditionally you would download a file from one source/server, but torrent makes it possible you to download from multiple sources, using Peer to Peer technology (P2P).


Seeding: after you’ve finished your download to help distribute it (you distribute the file while downloading, but it’s even more helpful if you continue to distribute the full file even after you have finished downloading). Chances are that most of the data you got was from seeds, the client will continue seeding until the torrent is removed (right-click the torrent, then hit Remove). Proper practice is to seed until the ratio of upload:download is at least 1.00. Remember it’s all up to you whether you want to seed or not, but your download was made faster by someone who seeded, how about we return the favor right. And this means that when a file has no seeds, two lifetimes won’t even matter, you cannot download that file.

So, to answer the question you are not asking because you don’t want to offend anybody, Seeding does not harm your computer.


As they are referred to in torrenting terms, leechers, are those who are downloading and uploading at the same time.

Hope you found this helpful, and if you like clicking buttons click subscribe and share 🙂


Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

Distributed Denial of Service (DDos)

It is a destructive attack  make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources. It is generally used to target a variety of important resources, ranging from banks, newspaper websites up to personal blogs. This attack is sorely based on breaking access to online information or services between businesses and clients. Many times companies/victims bounce back by putting their servers back online but at that time the damage in costs as a result of down time has been already done.

DDos Tools

  1. Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC) –  LOIC Download here
  2. R-U-Dead-Yet – Download Rudy Here
  3. Tor’s Hammer – Tor’s Hammer Download here
  4. DDOSIM—Layer 7 DDOS Simulator – Download DDOSIM here
  5. XOIC – Download XOIC here
  6. HULK (HTTP Unbearable Load King) – Download HULK here
  7.  PyLoris – Download PyLoris
  8. GoldenEye HTTP Denial Of Service Tool – Download Golden eye here
  9. DAVOSET – Download DAVOSET here
  10. OWASP – Download OWASP here

Cautionary Measures 

  1. Block/Blacklist rapidly repeating IP’S
  2. Create multiple layers

The Complete Alphabetical List of Kali Linux Commands

This list was compiled by Harold Finch in Cybrary 0P3N. I just wanted to share it. Credit and intellectual property belongs to Harold, follow him at Cybrary.

apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian)
aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian)
aspell Spell Checker
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index

basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop
builtin Run a shell builtin
bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)

cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
cd Change Directory
cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
chmod Change access permissions
chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
chkconfig System services (runlevel)
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command – ignoring shell functions
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
cp Copy one or more files to another location
cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut Divide a file into several parts

date Display or change the date & time
dc Desk Calculator
dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes
df Display free disk space
diff Display the differences between two files
diff3 Show differences among three files
dig DNS lookup
dir Briefly list directory contents
dircolors Colour setup for `ls’
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
dirs Display list of remembered directories
dmesg Print kernel & driver messages
du Estimate file space usage

echo Display message on screen
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
eject Eject removable media
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
env Environment variables
ethtool Ethernet card settings
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
exec Execute a command
exit Exit the shell
expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions

false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
fg Send job to foreground
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words, and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage
fsck File system consistency check and repair
ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros
fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file

gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groupadd Add a user security group
groupdel Delete a group
groupmod Modify a group
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help Display help for a built-in command
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name

iconv Convert the character set of a file
id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes

jobs List active jobs
join Join lines on a common field

kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name

less Display output one screen at a time
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
ln Create a symbolic link to a file
local Create variables
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files

make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time
mount Mount a file system
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
mv Move or rename files or directories
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)

netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a command or job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access

passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Stop processes from running
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory

quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas

ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
remsync Synchronize remote files via email
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell
symlink Make a new name for a file
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

tail Output the last part of file
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command

ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
uptime Show uptime
useradd Create new user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics

wait Wait for a process to complete
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user

xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application.

yes Print a string until interrupted

Create a Password for your USB

BitLocker is a full disk encryption feature that comes free with Windows operating systems, it is designed to help protect your data in all your drives. From USB’s to local disks, and if you have partitioned your drives, the new volume drive too.

However it should be noted that I DO NOT RECOMMEND THAT YOU USE IT ON YOUR MP3 PLAYER OR ANY OTHER MUSIC ONLY PLAYING DEVICES (I tried it on my MP3 player and on my way to school I wanted to play music, it was all encrypted, I had to decrypt it first but the files were intact. So let’s get started.

  1. Click the start button and then search “BitLocker Drive Encryption” This is the shorter way, you can still find it if you go to control panel. Double click on it1 Search bit.png
  2. All you drives will show here, make sure your USB is plugged in before opening the program, now choose the drive you want to encrypt. I have chosen drive “G:”2 choose drive to encrypt.png
  3. The next screen will prompt you to choose unlock method, for now lets choose password, and type in that password (Remember that Password Yo will use it to unlock your drive every time).3 select password.png
  4. On the next screen I would suggest you save that recovery key as a text file, and store it somewhere not on that drive. You will use it some day when you forgot your password to recover that password.4 choose recover key method.png
  5. Choose a folder to save your recover key5 save recovery.png
  6. This is what your recovery key looks like, but yours will be different.6 recovery key.png
  7. Next screen click on start Encryption, you might want to move all your files in your USB to your computer before encryption because it will lessen the encryption time, and move them back when you are done with encryption. But if you are encrypting you local disk, grab  pop corns cause you will be there for a while 🙂7 start encryption.png
  8. After the encryption has finished, this is what you will see the next time you try accessing files on that USB. Depending on your trust issues you can check the block where it says” Automatically unlock drive on this computer” then only that computer will not require password to unlock it, other computers will have to get in line for the password.8 enter password to open drive.png


Enjoy and don’t forget to share and subscribe

Easy access to all Chrome Passwords

Every time you logged on to Facebook, or any account on a website for that matter using Chrome or other browsers that haven’t been invented yet(I.E) you will get a pop up asking you to  save your password for easy login later, if you are certain that you are the only person who uses that computer well then good, go love your family or do something heart warming, but if not, well read up (meant to say listen up),  DON’T EVER SAVE PASSWORDS ON AN INTERNET BROWSER. Here is why, I will take you through decryption of chrome password encryption, it is so easy you won’t believe your marbles.

  1. Head over to settings1 settings.png
  2. Scroll down and click Show Advanced advance settings.png
  3. Click on Manage Passwords3manage passwords.png
  4. From here you can see all saved passwords, and to see beyond the dots or starts click on “Show” and if you the person clicking show on your computer knows your password for the computer, all your online Passwords will be easy pickings4enter computer pass.png
  5. I know it looks a bit secure right? If you don’t share your user’s passwords you safe right? Well no. and here is why and how, choose the account you want to see the password in plain text. Logging into that site, it is not hard just click on next, Password already saved.4.5relogin.png
  6. After click next, you will see the password in dots (encrypted), highlight the password and then right click.6high light passwordinspect element.png
  7. Now the fun stuff, click on Inspect. If you are using other browser it might be “Inspect  element info” And here is what you should see. Your focus area is the red box.7double click on password.png
  8. Leave everything as it is but double on the password, next to “type=”8change type.png
  9. Change “Password” to ” text” and press entertype text and press enter.png
  10. And finally all your passwords out there for anyone to play around with, online life ruined and the pain and the man hours of starting over again, just DON’T SAVE PASSWORDS AND TEMPT PEOPLE.dadada password.png

Before you click I have read terms of service!

We have clicked ‘I have read and understood terms of service’ countless times without reading them, I am guilty of that too, but I was actually curious as to what I was accepting my life away to, so I decided to start reading them, and to my surprise it was a long online document composed of 256 pages, I did not understand how and when was I expected to finish that, so I went back to clicking accept, but I just had to know. So I compiled this blog post of what I found on the internet, you will find links to references at the bottom of the post.

But what are Terms of Service (ToS)?

Terms of service can be viewed as a contract you sign before you use the services of a website or application. It outlines what is required of you, and what is regarded as acceptable behaviour and what is not. All of this is to prevent abuse and to promote safety for fellow browsers and you must agree to it before having access to it or some parts of it.

From what I gathered on the internet there are different classes of ToS. The following is a list ranged from good “Class A” to a not so friendly “Class E” of websites we use on a daily basis.

Class A (SeenThis)

  • You are free to choose your copyright license
  • You can get your data back
  • Right to leave the service


Class B (GitHub)

  • You don’t grant any copyright license to GitHub
  • Changes can happen any time, sometimes without notice
  • You shall defend and indemnify GitHub Your personal information is used for limited purposes
  • Your account can be suspended and your data deleted any time for 


 Class C (Google)

  • Google keeps your searches and other identifiable user information for an undefined period of time
  • Google can use your content for all their existing and future services
  • This service tracks you on other websites
  • Google can share your personal information with other parties
  • Google may stop providing services to you at any time


Class D (YouTube)

  • Terms may be changed any time at their discretion, without notice to the user
  • They can remove your content at any time and without prior notice
  • The copyright license is broader than necessary
  • Reduction of legal period for cause of action
  • Deleted videos are not really deleted

Class E (TwitPic)

  • Twitpic takes credit for your content
  • Your content is for Twitpic and their partners
  •  Reduction of legal period for cause of action
  • You indemnify Twitpic from any claim related to your content
  •  Deleted images are not really deleted

So there you have it, a bit of sneak peek into the heart of ToS. But I haven’t answered your question right? What are you accepting your life away to? Here is  general building blocks of ToS.


To expand on the idea, here is what each section means.

  • Intellectual Property – This disclosure informs people that whatever media unique to your site is your property that is protected by copy rights law, and that will be your website, your web logo, creative visuals etc.
  • Termination – This will inform users that you reserve the right to terminate or limit user’s access to your website in cause of any rule violation.
  • Governing Law – This includes the country’s law concerning computer fraud and abuse and the implications of violating the laws. This will be the country that is hosting the website, and or where the headquarters of your company is at. This tends to be tricky because WordPress blogs are hosted in America and anyone around the world can create a blog hosted by WordPress.
  • Links to Other Web Sites This clause indemnify you from taking responsibility from any third-party webs links that are on your website. Your users should note that links provided do not necessarily express your views on that website and they have the right to open the link or not, and if they choose to do so, they should know it is their own risk. And also make themselves familiar with that website’s terms of service.

Okay, but now what is End User-License Agreement?

I also thought that a blog criticizing how long ToS are would be short too, but no, short doesn’t always means good. Now EULA, as it is referred to, is an agreement  between someone who purchases, installs, or downloads software, and the licensor or provider of the software. Same contract analogy but with software.

I can’t leave you without an example of course, I am not a monster.


So there you have, do not just accept but if you must do, at least you have a rudimentary idea of what you are accepting.


  1. Terms of Service Classes
  2. Terms of Service Template
  3. End User-License Agreement Template

How to download movies/series/games/books using Torrent

  1. First step, downloading and installing utorrent. This software is for free (freeware) if you are requested to pay registration fees it is a scam, this will depend on whether you downloaded it from its developers website or not. Download the software here Download uTorrent this link leads to the developers website.
  2. After the download has completed, double-click on the software to begin installation. Note the software should have the same color and icon as the one shown on the image below.manual31
  3. When the install wizard (Dumbledore) pop ups, you wanna keep clicking next leaving everything checked except for downloading BitTorrent, that is another story for another day.install2.png
  4. Once installation is complete you should see this home page, there are no torrents been downloaded currently. To add torrents there are two ways. I will start with the new and quicker way using a magnetic link.torrent-homepage.png
  5. Many popular websites have a magnetic link download. A magnetic link is found under or next to a file you want to download, and guess what the icon looks like, yup, a magnet. You click on the red magnet icon and it launches utorrrent automatically.  Click on download manual1.png
  6. After clicking on download, the following pop up shows, click on the magnet to add using magnetic link.magnet1.png
  7. The website will ask for your permission to carry out the behind the curtain stuff like launching utorrent, click on launch applicationmagnet2.png
  8. After that, the last thing you need to grant permission for, is confirming which files you want to download (green box), i.e, covers for movies, subtitles and the actual video, you can uncheck stuff you do not want to download. Choose a download folder, the blue box, default is your “Downloads” folder. And click on the red box to start download.manual5.png
  9. You can track the progress of your downloads here.manual6
  10. Now adding torrents manually for websites that do not have a magnetic link. First go to your home in torrent, do not panic there is no button for home, just launch the software. Next go to your website/file you want to download. Click on download magnet2aaaa.png
  11. The following file will be downloaded in your downloads or wherever you set your default download folder to be.manual2.png
  12. Now go to your utorrent, click on the “+” or if you hover over it, it will tell you add torrent.manual31.png
  13. The following window will pop up, click on the file in your downloads or wherever it is downloaded and also click open in the red box.manual4.png
  14. From here you can follow steps 9-10. Enjoy!

How to download series/movies using IDM

  1. First and foremost download IDM Internet Download Manageridm-1.png
  2. After the download has completed, install IDM on your computer. And then restart your browser, immediately you browser will ask you to install extensions, depending on who you are there will be a list, IDM and Adobe extensions, just install IDM you will get back to the other ones later on.

    idm 2.png
    IDM install wizard
  3. Now go to  your favorite series/movies host. Click on the episode or movie you want to download. Press play for IDM to launch, after that there will be a blue IDM pop up on the top right corner of the video , click on it to begin download. My favorite websites are and If you are downloading movies from, you will need to press at the corner of the video to get part two or three of that movie and then again click on the blue IDM pop up after pressing play

    idm 3.png
    Kiss cartoon regular show

How to download YouTube Mp4 High qaulity

As in my previous post we will also be using IDM to download videos. First you need to download and install IDM. Here is the link Internet Download Manager


After you have installed IDM on your computer and your browser. Open your YouTube video. Go to the address bar and copy the link. Unlike the previous post, do not click on the Download this videos pop up on the corner because IDM will download low quality .flv file that is currently being displayed, sometimes these .flv files do not have audio.

After copying the link, go to your google search engine and search for keepvid, or you can type in the address in the address bar in a new tab, There are a lot of these YouTube converting websites, I trust;; but choose whichever one you like.


If you are using “” paste your video link in the green box and click on the arrow to the far right. After your video has loaded click on the red box to view a drop down of all the available pixels available, my guess is you want high quality click on 1080p or 720p if available.